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Tag Archives: Decision Making



The Ladder of Inference is a model that was first developed by organisational psychologist Chris Argyris in 1992 and later used by Peter Senge in his book, The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook.

The ladder depicts the unconscious thought process that we all go through to get from facts to a decision for action. It attempts to explain how we tend to behave or "jump to conclusions" when faced with a "situation".

  1. We select 'facts' (although not necessarily consciously) from our data bank of experience, facts, beliefs and
  2. Once we have selected data, we begin to add meaning to it. We interpret, that is, make assumptions about what we see, hear, read, feel and we impose our own interpretations on the data.
  3. Then draw our conclusions from We lose sight of how we do this because we do not think about our thinking. The conclusions feel so obvious to us that we see no need to retrace the steps we took from the data we selected to the conclusions we reached.
  4. Our conclusions become part of our data bank - whether 'true' or distorted, they will influence future thinking.

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Financial planning helps you determine your short and long-term financial goals and create a balanced plan to meet those goals.

Here are nine reasons why financial planning – with the help of an expert financial advisor – will get you where you want to be.

Income: It’s possible to manage income more effectively through planning. Managing income helps you understand how much money you’ll need for tax payments, other monthly expenditures and savings.

Cash Flow: Increase cash flows by carefully monitoring your spending patterns and expenses. Tax planning, prudent spending and careful budgeting will help you keep more of your organisation's hard-earned cash.

Capital: An increase in cash flow, can lead to an increase in capital. Allowing you to consider investments to improve your overall financial well-being.

Employee Security: Providing for your employee’s job security is an important part of the financial planning process. Having the proper employee insurances and policies in place can provide peace of mind for you and your staff. You need to ensure that you plan the finances to pay for pension plans, sick cover, unexpected expenses such as machinery breakdowns.

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This lengthy report – all 227 pages of it - is all about corporate governance and corporate boards of directors in listed corporations.

It has been written for scholars as well as practitioners interested in the international aspects of corporate governance.

Some chapters are particularly of interest to readers who are interested in the practical aspects of corporate governance.

Chapters five and nine concentrate on the role stock exchanges, legislators and institutional investors play in the international corporate governance arena.

Developments in the organization and the composition of boards of directors of listed corporations in the United States, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands are presented in chapters six to eight.

The remaining chapters of this study are of interest to scholars who are interested in conflict and consensus perspectives on corporate governance.

To download the report Click Here


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This short paper sets out the overlapping features of effective leadership and of effective governance.

It highlights the key features of effective leadership and of effective governance, how leaders contribute to effective governance and how governance supports effective leadership.

Although aimed at organisations delivering children’s services, the messages within this short report are relevant to others.

To download this paper Click Here


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The Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA) produce a range of 'Topic Gateways' which are intended as a refresher or introduction to topics of interest to their members and others involved in the practical application of finance within organisations.

This booklet provides a definition, overview, and applications of different planning and forecasting methods.

Planning and Forecasting Toolkit 


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Grid analysis is a useful technique to use for making a decision.

It is most effective where you have several good alternatives and many factors to consider.

To download an explanation of how to use the model Click Here


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This is one of many models of how to solve problems.

It can give you and your team some structure if you need to find a solution which everyone needs to buy implement and learn from.

1.  Identify The Problem

  • What is it you acutely want to change? It is remarkable how often a group of people sit down together to solve a problem and each has a different understanding of the issue and a different outcome in mind. It is essential that all the key stakeholders agree on the nature of the
  • You then need to analyse the problem in more detail. What factors are having an impact on the problem in question? What specifically is going wrong and to what extent? How should things be? Be careful not to define the problem too narrowly or too broadly, or in terms that place inappropriate emphasis on insignificant
  • You should also avoid the tendency to stick rigidly to your original definition of the problem. Things change and it is important to check that the problem still exists in the form you have defined

2.  LOCATING THE CAUSE OF THE PROBLEM

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