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Tag Archives: Evaluation

During a period of over nine years, Meredith Belbin and his team of researchers based at Henley Management College, England, studied the behaviour of managers from all over the world.

Managers taking part in the study were given a battery of psychometric tests and put into teams of varying composition, while they were engaged in a complex management exercise.

Their different core personality traits, intellectual styles and behaviours were assessed during the exercise.

As time progressed different clusters of behaviour were identified as underlying the success of the teams. These successful clusters of behaviour were then given names. Hence the emergence of nine TEAM ROLES. These are:

  • action-oriented roles - Shaper, Implementer, and Completer Finisher
  • people-oriented roles - Co-ordinator, Teamworker and Resource Investigator
  • cerebral roles - Plant, Monitor Evaluator and Specialist

Results from this research showed that there are a finite number of behaviours or  TEAM ROLEwhich comprise certain patterns of behaviour which can be adopted naturally by the various personality types found among people at work.


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Although there are countless organisational models, this paper describes one particular approach–the congruence model of organisational behaviour.

First developed by David A Nadler and M L Tushman in the early 1980s, it has been found to be particularly useful in helping leaders to understand and analyse their organisations’ performance.

This approach has been developed and refined over nearly three decades of academic research and practical application in scores of major companies.

It doesn’t provide any pat answers or pre-packaged solutions to the perplexing issues of large-scale change. Instead, it is a useful tool that helps leaders understand the interplay of forces that shape the performance of each organisation, and starts them down the path of working with their own people to design and implement solutions to their organisation’s unique problems.

This paper, shared by Stanford University, describes the congruence model and suggests how it can provide a starting point for large-scale change.

Congruence Model - A Roadmap to Understanding Organisational Performance

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“The range of what we think and do is limited by what we fail to notice, and because we fail to notice that we fail to notice, there is little we can do to change, until we notice how failing to notice shapes our thoughts and deeds”.  Ronald Laing

There are plenty of useful definitions of Action Learning (McGill and Beaty, 1992; Pedler, 1996; Raelin, 2000) but at the core of all of them is the idea that action learning is:


  • a method for individual and organization development
  • based upon small groups of colleagues meeting over time to tackle real problems or issues to get things done; reflecting and learning with and from their experience and from each other as they attempt to change things.

Simply put, Action learning is the process of bringing thinking and action into harmony.

Learning is a continuous process and is best achieved with an open, probing mind, an ability to listen, question and explore ideas.

This may seem deceptively simple but it embodies ideas about adult learning and organisational change which are both complex and central to what action learning is about.

Adult Learning: From the world of adult learning come the notions that:

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Posted in Resource EXTRA

Too often we don’t spend enough time clarifying what we’re really aiming to do before we move to action.

It’s all too easy to set objectives that are so general that we don’t know exactly what we’re trying to achieve, or whether we’ve achieved it.

A structured approach forces us to think more deeply and methodically about what we actually want. Perhaps the best known of these approaches is the SMART acronym. This is a practical, straightforward tool, which can be used for both professional and personal planning.

There’s quite a wide range of variations in the way SMART is defined, and in this quick guide, we outline one of the most popular.

SMART Objectives - A Quick Guide

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The Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA) produce a range of 'Topic Gateways' which are intended as a refresher or introduction to topics of interest to their member

s and others involved in the practical application of finance within organisations.

This Topic Gateway explores a range of analysis tools include SWOT and PEST analysis, Porter’s Five Forces and Value Chain Analysis etc.

To download this Topic Gateway Click Here

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Learning and development are mutually dependent - as employees are trained, they and the business both develop.

As businesses expand, new skills are required for changing technology, systems, products, or customers.

Development needs can be supported through a diversity of learning from many sources.

Many businesses know that there is a gap.

They know they could do better, but most ask, "Where do we start?"

This quick guide gives you some 'hints and tips' on how you might approach the important tasks of planning and evaluating learning and development.

Planning & Evaluating Learning & Development


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Porter's Five Forces model, named after Michael E. Porter, identifies and analyses five competitive forces that shape every industry, and helps determine an industry's weaknesses and strengths.




These forces are:


1. Competition in the industry;

2. Potential of new entrants into the industry;

3. Power of suppliers;

4. Power of customers;

5. Threat of substitute products.

Frequently used to identify an industry's structure to determine corporate strategy, Porter's model can be applied to any segment of the economy to search for profitability and attractiveness.

To read more click on the following link: Five Forces Model


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